NAPLAN and learning difficulties Part II

June 11th, 2012

In a recent blog post I identified what I saw as problems with the Australian literacy and numeracy testing (NAPLAN) for grades 3, 5, 7 and 9. A number of colleagues have questioned my position and, being the “social phobe” that I am, I am compelled to clarify my position.

There is certainly a lobby opposed to a national literacy and numeracy test full stop but I’m not buying their arguments. A national literacy and numeracy test has many advantages. We know that teachers are not great at ranking student reading achievement for example (see Madelaine & Wheldall, 2007). An objective test may be helpful in identifying struggling students who would otherwise not be identified if we relied on teacher judgment alone. A standardised test can also allow us to see how literacy and numeracy standards are changing across time. For example, a Grade 3 cohort with good maths skills who became mediocre by Grade 5 might highlight a need for better maths instruction in Grades 4 and 5.

What I am arguing is that NAPLAN in its current form fails in two important ways.

First, it begins in Grade 3 by which stage most children who are going to fail have already failed. This is a problem because early intervention is crucial for children who have learning difficulties. If we take reading as the example, the effects of intervention halve after Grade 1. For example, the US National Reading Panel report (NICHHD, 2000) reported that the mean effect size for systematic phonics in kindergarten was d = 0.56; d = 0.54 for first grade; and d = 0.27 for grades 2-6. Clearly we have to get in early. One might argue that schools have early identification and intervention in hand before Grade 3 NAPLAN. I strongly suspect this isn’t the case in most schools. I recently published a book chapter that looked at the growth in reading skills of a group of 61 poor readers and 52 good readers over the course of a school year. All poor readers were engaged in learning support interventions of some description. The outcome was that only one of the 61 children who were poor readers at the beginning of the year made meaningful growth in reading skills. All the others essentially stayed at the same level. Figure 1 below taken from Wright and Conlon (2012) shows standard scores from the Woodcock Basic Reading Skills Cluster (a combination of nonword and real word reading skills) taken at the beginning of each of the four school terms. The age-standardised scores of controls (good readers) didn’t change as one would expect. Unfortunately, the same thing occurred for the poor readers. If they were a poor reader at the beginning of the year they remained so at the end of the year. The conclusion was the same as Denton et al. (2003). Normal school learning support services often lack the specificity and intensity to make a meaningful change in the reading skills of struggling readers. That is, they do little to “close the gap”.

Figure 1 (from Wright & Conlon, 2012). Poor reader and control group means and standard deviations (standard scores with mean of 100 and SD of 15) on the Basic Reading Cluster at the beginning of each of the four school terms.


The second problem with NAPLAN in its current form has been discussed in the previous post. That is, the test format does not provide data that helps teachers identify what specific parts of the reading, writing and numeracy (and arguably language) processes are going wrong and, most importantly, does not provide data that on its own allows design of effective interventions. See also Kerry Hempenstall’s comments.

The answer may lie in the quality response-to-intervention (RTI) approach in Australian schools that I admitted yearning for in my previous post. I would like to see every Kindergarten/Prep teacher employ the very best methods for the teaching of language, reading, spelling and maths skills/knowledge. A sample of children should be subject to weekly tests on curriculum-based measures of the above skills. Estimates of normal growth rates can then be obtained. Every child in Kindy/Prep should then be assessed on these measures weekly and their growth plotted. Any child with a lower than average growth rate should be hit with extra instruction. These children should again be assessed at the beginning of Grade 1 on standardised tests and, if they are still behind their peers, should be hit with another round of intervention using a systematic program (see examples here and here). A NAPLAN style test in May-June of Grades 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 can then be used to ensure that these children maintain their gains and to identify any children missed by the previous procedure.